Discussione:Chimica organica/Proprieta fisiche1

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Alcune cose che l'utente laghi.l vuole aggiungere[modifica]

It's important to realise that all molecules experience dispersion forces. Dipole-dipole interactions are not an alternative to dispersion forces - they occur in addition to them. Molecules which have permanent dipoles will therefore have boiling points rather higher than molecules which only have temporary fluctuating dipoles.

Surprisingly dipole-dipole attractions are fairly minor compared with dispersion forces, and their effect can only really be seen if you compare two molecules with the same number of electrons and the same size. For example, the boiling points of ethane, CH3CH3, and fluoromethane, CH3F, are

Why choose these two molecules to compare? Both have identical numbers of electrons, and if you made models you would find that the sizes were similar - as you can see in the diagrams. That means that the dispersion forces in both molecules should be much the same.

The higher boiling point of fluoromethane is due to the large permanent dipole on the molecule because of the high electronegativity of fluorine. However, even given the large permanent polarity of the molecule, the boiling point has only been increased by some 10°.

Here is another example showing the dominance of the dispersion forces. Trichloromethane, CHCl3, is a highly polar molecule because of the electronegativity of the three chlorines. There will be quite strong dipole-dipole attractions between one molecule and its neighbours.

On the other hand, tetrachloromethane, CCl4, is non-polar. The outside of the molecule is uniformly - in all directions. CCl4 has to rely only on dispersion forces.

So which has the highest boiling point? CCl4 does, because it is a bigger molecule with more electrons. The increase in the dispersion forces more than compensates for the loss of dipole-dipole interactions.

The boiling points are: CHCl3 61.2°C CCl4 76.8°C